Event Description

The Advanced Training Course (ATC) explores the issues of monitoring and protection of critical infrastructure through an interdisciplinary approach. Over the past decade, the attention of the developed democratic countries has been mainly addressed to the protection of vital objects. Science and research are increasingly focusing attention on Security and Critical Infrastructure Protection. Legal frameworks for the protection of critical infrastructure elements with a focus on energy, transport and ICT have been gradually developed in European countries, but such frameworks are still missing in some countries, mainly in non-EU countries.
Protection of infrastructure objects is solved by technical, technological and organizational measures. In the future, the protection of soft targets appears to be another key activity of modern states.
The concept of critical infrastructure was set mainly because of the occurrence of unexpected events. To identify the key elements for an efficient security management, it is necessary to define and describe the types of threats besides estimating their probability of occurrence along with their expected consequences.

When we speak about Critical Infrastructure Protection, we are considering the influence of the entire spectrum of possible threats, which are classified into three main types:
  1. Natural events;
  2. Technical failure/human error;
  3. Intentional acts such as terrorism, crime or war.
If the critical infrastructure elements (physical and IT) have to be protected, the essential task is prevention, i.e. discovering and predicting threats. ATC aims at covering this issue through an interdisciplinary, and innovative approach, using advanced methods for monitoring and protection.

The first part is dedicated to the analysis of the various threats to critical infrastructure and to the legal aspect, mainly from the Moldavian point of view. The approach of NATO countries will be also presented in order to share it with participant NATO partner countries.

The second part is focused on the new methodology (Unmanned Systems, sensor networks, etc.) which can help to recognise various threats (terrorism-explosion, crime – cyber-attacks, natural events – flooding, etc.), modelling behaviour of critical infrastructure elements under such threats and consequently designing adequate means of protection from the new intentional actions, not only by Unmanned Systems.

The Unmanned Systems (USs) have been rapidly growing in popularity in recent years. Tactical USs are now used extensively by the military and various security services, while professional USs are becoming increasingly common in a variety of civilian fields. This expanding use of USs is due to advances in technology as well as to the versatility and reductions in size, risks and costs that remotely operated systems offer as a result of not having a pilot or operator on board. USs include ground control stations (GCS), data communication links, and a range of unmanned aerial (UAV), ground (UGV) and underwater (UUV) vehicles. USs are being used more and more in mainstream applications thanks to advancements in technology. This is leading to more ways of refining the way platforms are deployed and integrated into teams of workers.

Performance in autonomy mainly comes from massive use of advanced IT technology as core of the USs. Unfortunately, an obvious drawback is that wireless USs are highly exposed to risks related to the IT subsystems. Data is so valuable, in fact, that the companies deploying USs aren’t the only ones interested in getting their hands on it, as some people are even willing to steal it. Operators should consider the security of data collected via US as a critical part of their risk management program. Questions of cybersecurity in the USs domain become crucial and the potential misuse of small USs for criminal and other malicious purposes is a growing development that needs to be addressed in education and training, in order to have qualified personnel ready to engage these challenges.

One part of ATC will be dedicated to data analysis and modelling, addressing, in particular: application of computer modelling software for forecasting dangerous natural hazards, namely, the 3D mapping of the current state of risk factors, etc., as well as procedure for defect detection through data fusion of processed images and vibration measurements; automation in defect image acquisition by Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAV), automatic data storage in bridge management systems; embedding sensor systems to revalorize and transform elements and structures into self-diagnostic elements, data-driven automatic procedure for alert in monitored structures.

Geotechnical monitoring is currently an advanced risk management tool that identifies, analyses and verifies potential and lasting hazards in constructions and in the rock environment. The number of natural disasters on our planet is increasing year by year and this trend is affecting our territory as well. Natural disasters associated with the rock environment are called "geohazards", a category which also includes floods, seismic shocks, a large part of the geodynamic phenomena - landslides. Slope movements are a major economic problem because in some areas they cause great direct and indirect damage. Landslides destroy large areas of agricultural and forest land from normal use and threaten mainly lane road communications - roads, motorways, railways. Major problems cause sloping movements in the construction of new sections of motorways and tunnels in the portal sections.

The main aim of this training course is therefore to spread essential information so as to allow to detect risks. A significant part will be dedicated to possibilities of analysing, elaborating and modelling threats on critical infrastructure.

Moldovia was selected as NATO Partner Country, highly demanding knowledge of security developments concerning an early warning with a view to preventing crises, as well as developing the concept of critical infrastructure.

The Advanced training course will be divided into 4 blocks:

Block 1: General aspects of Protection of Critical Infrastructure
1.1 Protection of Critical infrastructure in Moldovia;
1.2 Protection of Critical infrastructure in NATO countries;

Block 2: Unmanned Systems and sensor network technology for threats monitoring of Critical Infrastructures;

Block 3: Monitoring, data analysis and structural modelling
3.1 Monitoring and forecasting of natural catastrophes;
3.2 Modelling and data analyses Daponte/Paladi Event Application;

Block 4: Cybersecurity and protection of IT infrastructure and one practical section “Practical training activities”.

After the theoretical interdisciplinary presentation, a practical section is planned, where the participants will obtain practical skills related to the presented areas (Using drones for building and critical infrastructure inspection - 3D mapping in the Laboratory by using "licensed software Pix4Dmapper Professional drone-mapping, Environmental monitoring system in Flying laboratory SOWA, and building information modelling and finite element modelling of critical infrastructure elements).

Practical training activities will be carried out in the Laboratory "Educational for Drone (eDrone)” at the Moldova State University, having: Environmental monitoring platform Flying laboratory SOWA, model SmartCity SOWA; air quality sensors Flying laboratory SOWA; LiDAR 3D mobile scanner RP LiDAR A3; Multispectral camera Survey 3W și FLIR Vue Pro R (registration rate 9 Hz, resolution 640*512 px with the possibility of recording, radiometric, operating temperature: -40 °C till 80 °C); 2 multicopter drones DongYang D800-X4, RC; 1 drone DJI Phantom 4 Pro; 1 drone testing platform DronesBench Index (IDB); Licensed software Pix4Dmapper Professional drone-mapping, perpetual software license; 3D Printer DaVinci 1.1 Plus, WIFI, camera monitoring; 3D scanner Ciclop Estop Laser; Server PY TX2550 M4 Tower, CPU 8 nuclei, min freq. 3,0 GHz, SmartCach 20 Mbm Ram 64 Gb HDD 5TB.

The key speakers were selected by specialists in the fields of the Advanced Training Course (ATC), having major knowledge of the issues dealt with in the above mentioned areas.